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HIST 1111 World HIstory I Hongjie Wang: Chicago & Turabian Citation Style

Information resources available to students in this course.

Chicago Quick Guide

****For articles from a database, give whatever identifying information is available in the database listing: a DOI for the article; the name of the database and the number assigned by the database; or a “stable” or “persistent” URL for the article.****

(From Bedford St. Martin's)

Chicago Citation Basics

The Chicago style has two documentation systems:

Notes-Bibliography - Preferred by scholars in the humanities (arts, literature, history, etc.).

Place citations in notes either at the end of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). List all sources at the end of your paper on a new page entitled "Bibliography." Alphabetize the bibliography by author's last name, or by title if a work's author is unknown.

Author-Date - More concise; usually used by scholars in the sciences and social sciences.

Provide brief parenthetical citations within the paper (usually the author's last name and publication date). List full citations at the end of the work in a "Reference List."

 Chapters 16 and 17 of the manual provide full details on both formats.

Chicago vs. Turabian?

"Turabian style" refers to a manual (originally by Kate Turabian) that adapts the Chicago style for the needs of students.  The Chicago Style's manual has exhaustive instructions on formatting and more, aimed at writers preparing articles and books for publication.  Which manual should you use? Always check with your instructor but the instructions found in the Turabian manual generally follow Chicago style.

Find the books

government documents

Basic Citation Form in Chicago/Turabian Style

Government publications are written by federal bureaucrats and printed, not published, by the Government Printing Office. Very often these publications will not follow a standard title page arrangement and some publishing elements will be eliminated. However, use the following citation example to find as many elements as possible and arrange them as shown.

Author (Agency). Title, edition, statement. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. (Series elements). (Notes). [ If including Superintendent of Documents number, enter in Notes ]

For detailed examples, see the following guides:

Need Help?

Citation Generator Websites

Knight Cite

KnightCite is an online citation generator service provided by the Hekman Library of Calvin College.

Easy Bib

Free (for MLA) Automatic Bibliography and Citation Generator

Son of Citation Machine

Citation machine helps students and professional researchers to properly credit the information that they use.

Citation help for primary sources

archival sources

Citing archival sources properly is important, because the materials found in an archive or special collections repository are often unique and so cannot be referred to elsewhere. Persons trying to locate your sources at a later date will need to know exactly where and how to retrieve them. The particular form of your citation will depend upon the citation style you adhere to (e.g. The Chicago Manual of Style, Modern Language Association, etc.). The basic elements that should appear in your citation are:

  • The document itself: Include the creator, page, section, and date information where necessary.

Ex: Knights d'Orleans records.

  • Collection Name and Number: Include the title and the collection or catalog number.

Ex: Manuscripts Collection 986.

  • Repository: Where is the item held?

Ex: Louisiana Research Collection, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118.


Knights d'Orleans records, Manuscripts Collection 986, Louisiana Research Collection, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118

When you are at the archives, it is a good idea to note down information from the finding aid or guide to the collection and from labels on the folder and box - even if not all the information is required in the citation itself. Take note of the box and folder number for the item but do not use the information in your citation as collections are often reboxed, refoldered, and renumbered. Citing archival sources can be tricky. Never hesitate to ask the archivist, curator, librarian, or your professor for assistance. They are there to help you!

(adapted from George Washington University Gelman Library Libguides)

What is a DOI?

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object Identifier or DOI is an  unique code that is used to identify materials that exist in an online environment.  They are very similiar to the ISBN codes that are used to identify books and magazines.  By using this code, students, scholars, editors and librarians can locate an online article even if it it's URL (web address) changes over time. The DOI for an article will never change, providing a permanent way to identify articles online.

The location of a DOI will be slightly different for each publication.  Many articles, particularly older works, may not have DOI. Look for the DOI letters followed by an alphanumeric sequence that begins with the number 10. They are usually at the top of an article, nearby or long with the other citation information.