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Psychology Resources: Articles--popular and research

Schizophrenia--which is the research article?

Compare the two articles  linked below. Follow the link and evaluate each article in order to answer the following questions.

What, basically, are both articles about? 

Which article is an example of empirical research? A primary source? Why?

Which article is an example of a secondary source? Why?

How might students use each of these articles in their research on this topic?


Asthma--which is research?

United States government websites provide access to both of these information resources which give accurate information about Asthma, but with different purposes.

Which article is an example of empirical research? A primary source? Why?

Which article is considered a secondary source? Why?

How might both articles be useful to students?  Who else (what other audiences) might use these resources? 

Adolescent drinking--comparing empirical articles

Both of these articles were found searching PsycINFO and are examples of empirical research, primary sources.  

Evaluate these articles in terms of how easy or hard it is for you to read them with understanding.  What terms are unfamiliar and so would need to be defined?  

Which article do you think would be easier for a non specialist to read? 

For help consult, How to Read a Scholarly Article and Reading Scholarly Articles linked from the Home page of this guide. And ask your professor!

Lifelong Learning--which is research?

Compare the two articles on life long learning linked below. Follow the link and quickly evaluate each article in order answer to these questions.

Which article is an example of empirical research, a primary source? Why?

Which article is a secondary source? Why?

How might each be useful to student's research?

Primary vs. Secondary Sources

Primary sources are: the first hand accounts, the raw material, the empirical research experiments.

Primary sources vary by discipline and can include historical and legal documents, eye witness accounts, results of an experiment, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, and art objects. In the natural and social sciences, the results of an experiment or study are typically found in scholarly articles or papers delivered at conferences, so those articles and papers that present the original results are considered primary sources.

Secondary sources are written about primary sources. Such information resources can summarize, analyze or discussion the original material; it is second hand information.



Primary Source

Secondary Source


Slave narratives preserved on microfilm.

The book Speaking power : Black feminist orality in women’s narratives of slavery by DoVeanna Fulton


American photographer Man Ray's photograph of a flat-iron called “Le Cadeau” (The Gift)

Peggy Schrock's article called “Man Ray's Le cadeau: the unnatural woman and the de-sexing of modern man” published in Woman's Art Journal.


An experimental test of three methods of alcohol risk reduction with young adults, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology


A review of the literature on college student drinking intervention which uses the article in an analysis entitled: Individual-level interventions to reduce college student drinking: A meta-analytic review, published in the journal Addictive Behaviors

Political Science

U.S. Government Census data

An article which used samples of census data entitled: "Who is Headed South?: U.S. Migration Trends in Black and White, 1970-200" published in the journal

Social Forces