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Citation Style Guide: AMA (American Medical Association)

Easy to follow examples and links to further information about MLA, APA, Chicago and other citation styles

AMA Citation Basics

* References should be numbered consecutively with superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they are cited in the text.

* Use initials without periods for author names and do not put space between the initials:  Smith IP.

* Abbreviate and italicize journal titles.  See the NLM Journals database for abbreviations.

* If there are more than six authors list only the first three, followed by "et al".

* Titles are in sentence style, not capitalized.

* Use a DOI (digital object identifier) instead of a URL if available.  If a DOI is used you do not need to note the "Accessed on" date.

 


From Cite right: A quick guide to citation styles--MLA, APA, Chicago, the sciences, professions, and more, by Charles Lipson.

This book can be found at the Lane Library Research/Information Desk PN171.F56 L55 2011.

Citing References In Text

Cite a passage in text by placing a superscript Arabic numeral following the citation.  Then number the reference list in order as they appear in the text.

Examples:

The report1 found that...
As has been noted previously,2
This argument was refuted in another study.3
Other reports4,5confirm these findings. (Note: Two sources are cited.)
"...as has been the conclusion of this author."6 (Note: Use after direct quotation.)
In recent reports1,3-5,9surgical outcomes have been... (Note: Multiple sources cited; not all are consecutive.)

You may cite the same source more than once by using the same endnote number. However, when you repeat a number, you should include a page number, in parentheses, next to the note number.

The data1(p44) disproves the previous assertion...

See pages 41-44 of the AMA Manual of Style for more information.

Citing Articles in the Reference List

Article in a print journal:

  1. Narducci E, Waltz A, Gorski K, Leppla L, Donaldson M. The clinical utility of functional performance tests within one-year post-acl reconstruction: a systematic review. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2011;6(4):333-342.


Online article from a database (such as EBSCO):

  1. McConnell R, Islam T, Shankardass K, et al. Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118(7):1021-1026. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901232.

Online article from web site:

  1. Goldstein LB, Bushnell CD, Adams RJ, et al. Guidelines for the Primary Prevention of Stroke. Stroke. 2011;42(2):517 -584.  http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/42/2/517.long.  Accessed February 5, 2012.

Online article from newspaper

  1. Brown, D. Global diabetes rate soars. Washington Post. June 26, 2011. http://www.washingtonpost.com. Accessed March 30, 2012.

Citing Books in the Reference List

Book - author:

  1. Katz RV, Warren RC. The Search for the Legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books; 2011.

(As with articles, if there are more than six authors list only the first three, followed by "et al".)


Book - editor:

  1. Boylan, M, ed.  Public Health Policy and Ethics.   Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2004.

Book - chapter:

  1. Frumkin, H. Urban sprawl and public health.  In:  Hynes, HP, Lopez, R.  Urban Health:  Readings in the Social, Built, and Physical Environments of U.S. Cities.  Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2009:11-168.

Book - no author:

  1. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary.  31st ed.  Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2007.

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The AMA Manual of Style is the American Medical Association's official guide to writing for publication in science journals.

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